The Chinese Civil War was the struggle for control of China, fought by the Nationalists was the civil war a second american revolution essay communist Red Army, mainly between 1945 and 1949. First United Front in 1927. Nationalists agreed to peace talks and an abortive ceasefire. But by the start of 1946, the two were again fighting for control of China.
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The civil war inflicted major suffering on China’s civilian population, already exhausted and economically ravaged by decades of revolution, warlordism and conflict with the Japanese. The war caused millions of casualties, collapsed the economy through hyperinflation and corruption, and displaced millions of refugees. The CCP secured victory in 1949 but like the republicans of 1912, they inherited a divided, unstable and economically depleted nation. In late 1945 foreign intermediaries, particularly the Americans, tried to broker peace talks between the two groups. Jiang Jieshi and other Nationalist leaders in Chongqing. Mao and Zhou attended at the urging of the Soviet Union and were accompanied by US diplomat Patrick Hurley. These talks were notable for their civility and frequent shows of goodwill between Mao and Jiang Jieshi.
Long live President Jiang Jieshi! The two men were also photographed together smiling. But beneath this polite veneer, the Chongqing talks were insincere and unproductive. Both sides were maneuvering behind the scenes and buying time for their military forces to recover and regroup. The United States was promising to support a coalition government, while increasing shipments of military supplies to the Nationalists. After three weeks of negotiating Mao and Jiang announced a bilateral pact, agreeing to suspend hostilities and form an all-party government. As expected, the pact did not last long.
Fighting between the CCP and Nationalists soon flared up again in Manchuria, an area at this time controlled by the Soviet Red Army. Jiang’s government to agree to a 15 day ceasefire, which gave the beleaguered CCP a lifeline. Jiang had negotiated with Moscow to allow Soviet troops to occupy Manchuria, until he could mass enough troops there to counter any threat from the CCP. The Russians held to this agreement but offered the CCP’s Red Army training, weapons and supplies before withdrawing.
This support helped transform communist guerrilla fighters in Manchuria into an more conventional military force. The Civil War had a significant impact on the Chinese people. Hampered by a poor taxation base, increased military spending and widespread corruption, the Nationalist government’s deficit skyrocketed. Guomindang to release large amounts of paper money not backed by financial reserves. The result was hyperinflation: a rapid rise in prices and a deterioration in the value of currency. By 1949 hyperinflation was approaching the levels seen in Weimar Germany in 1923, with some Chinese observed hauling their money in carts. A thriving black market emerged and crime increased.
Foreign aid supplies were hijacked and sold, reconstruction of industry was halted and unemployment rose. The behaviour of the Nationalist army only increased dissatisfaction with the government. Nationalists troops, the majority of whom were poorly treated conscripts, mutinied or deserted in large numbers. Soldiers also engaged in rape, looting and other acts of brutality against the civilian population.
This unpopularity grew further when Jiang repeated a tactic he had previously used against the Japanese, ordering the diversion of the Yellow River to split enemy forces. The outcome was around 500 villages flooded and 400,000 people displaced. The CCP, on the other hand, was winning the propaganda war. While Nationalist forces were able to capture the communist soviet in Yan’an in March 1947, the CCP still controlled much of northern China. By September 1947 the civil war was being fought on two fronts: the huge Manchurian theatre in the north and the triangle of Shandong, Anhui and Henan in east central China.